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Bit functions

Introduced in: v3.7.7

AQL offers some bit manipulation and interpretation functions for bitwise arithmetic.

These functions can operate on numeric integer values in the range between 0 and 4294967295 (232 - 1), both included. This allows treating numbers as bitsets of up to 32 members. Using any of the bit functions on numbers outside the supported range will make the function return null and register a warning.

The value range for the bit functions is conservatively small, so that no precision loss or rounding errors should occur when the input/output values of bit functions are passed around or sent over the wire to client applications with unknown precision number types.

BIT_AND()

BIT_AND(numbersArray) → result

And-combines the numeric values in numbersArray into a single numeric result value.

  • numbersArray (array): array with numeric input values
  • returns result (number|null): and-combined result

The function expects an array with numeric values as its input. The values in the array must be numbers, which must not be negative. The maximum supported input number value is 232 - 1. Input number values outside the allowed range will make the function return null and produce a warning. Any null values in the input array are ignored.


BIT_AND(value1, value2) → result

If two numbers are passed as individual function parameters to BIT_AND(), it will return the bitwise and value of its two operands. Only numbers in the range 0 to 232 - 1 are allowed as input values.

  • value1 (number): first operand
  • value2 (number): second operand
  • returns result (number|null): and-combined result
BIT_AND([1, 4, 8, 16]) // 0
BIT_AND([3, 7, 63]) // 3
BIT_AND([255, 127, null, 63]) // 63
BIT_AND(127, 255) // 127
BIT_AND("foo") // null

BIT_CONSTRUCT()

BIT_CONSTRUCT(positionsArray) → result

Construct a number value with its bits set at the positions given in the array.

  • positionArray (array): array with bit positions to set (zero-based)
  • returns result (number|null): the generated number

The function expects an array with numeric values as its input. The values in the array must be numbers, which must not be negative. The maximum supported input number value is 31. Input number values outside the allowed range will make the function return null and produce a warning.

BIT_CONSTRUCT([1, 2, 3]) // 14
BIT_CONSTRUCT([0, 4, 8]) // 273
BIT_CONSTRUCT([0, 1, 10, 31]) // 2147484675

BIT_DECONSTRUCT()

BIT_DECONSTRUCT(number) → positionsArray

Deconstruct a number value into an array with the positions of its set bits.

  • number (number): the input value to deconstruct
  • returns positionArray (array|null): array with bit positions set (zero-based)

The function turns a numeric value into an array with the positions of all its set bits. The positions in the output array are zero-based. The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_DECONSTRUCT(14) // [1, 2, 3]
BIT_DECONSTRUCT(273) // [0, 4, 8]
BIT_DECONSTRUCT(2147484675) // [0, 1, 10, 31]

BIT_FROM_STRING()

BIT_FROM_STRING(bitstring) → number

Converts a bitstring (consisting of digits 0 and 1) into a number.

To convert a number into a bitstring, see BIT_TO_STRING().

  • bitstring (string): string sequence consisting of 0 and 1 characters
  • returns number (number|null): the parsed number

The input value must be a bitstring, consisting only of 0 and 1 characters. The bitstring can contain up to 32 significant bits, including any leading zeros. Note that the bitstring must not start with 0b. If the bitstring has an invalid format, this function returns null and produces a warning.

BIT_FROM_STRING("0111") // 7
BIT_FROM_STRING("000000000000010") // 2
BIT_FROM_STRING("11010111011101") // 13789
BIT_FROM_STRING("100000000000000000000") // 1048756

BIT_NEGATE()

BIT_NEGATE(number, bits) → result

Bitwise-negates the bits in number, and keeps up to bits bits in the result.

  • number (number): the number to negate
  • bits (number): number of bits to keep in the result (0 to 32)
  • returns result (number|null): the resulting number, with up to bits significant bits

The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The number of bits must be between 0 and 32. The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_NEGATE(0, 8) // 255
BIT_NEGATE(0, 10) // 1023
BIT_NEGATE(3, 4) // 12
BIT_NEGATE(446359921, 32) // 3848607374

BIT_OR()

BIT_OR(numbersArray) → result

Or-combines the numeric values in numbersArray into a single numeric result value.

  • numbersArray (array): array with numeric input values
  • returns result (number|null): or-combined result

The function expects an array with numeric values as its input. The values in the array must be numbers, which must not be negative. The maximum supported input number value is 232 - 1. Input number values outside the allowed range will make the function return null and produce a warning. Any null values in the input array are ignored.


BIT_OR(value1, value2) → result

If two numbers are passed as individual function parameters to BIT_OR(), it will return the bitwise or value of its two operands. Only numbers in the range 0 to 232 - 1 are allowed as input values.

  • value1 (number): first operand
  • value2 (number): second operand
  • returns result (number|null): or-combined result
BIT_OR([1, 4, 8, 16]) // 29
BIT_OR([3, 7, 63]) // 63
BIT_OR([255, 127, null, 63]) // 255
BIT_OR(255, 127) // 255
BIT_OR("foo") // null

BIT_POPCOUNT()

BIT_POPCOUNT(number) → result

Counts the number of bits set in the input value.

  • number (number): array with numeric input values
  • returns result (number|null): number of bits set in the input value

The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_POPCOUNT(0) // 0
BIT_POPCOUNT(255) // 8
BIT_POPCOUNT(69399252) // 12
BIT_POPCOUNT("foo") // null

BIT_SHIFT_LEFT()

BIT_SHIFT_LEFT(number, shift, bits) → result

Bitwise-shifts the bits in number to the left, and keeps up to bits bits in the result. When bits overflow due to the shift, they are discarded.

  • number (number): the number to shift
  • shift (number): number of bits to shift (0 to 32)
  • bits (number): number of bits to keep in the result (0 to 32)
  • returns result (number|null): the resulting number, with up to bits significant bits

The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The number of bits must be between 0 and 32. The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_SHIFT_LEFT(0, 1, 8) // 0
BIT_SHIFT_LEFT(7, 1, 16) // 14
BIT_SHIFT_LEFT(2, 10, 16) // 2048
BIT_SHIFT_LEFT(878836, 16, 32) // 1760821248

BIT_SHIFT_RIGHT()

BIT_SHIFT_RIGHT(number, shift, bits) → result

Bitwise-shifts the bits in number to the right, and keeps up to bits bits in the result. When bits overflow due to the shift, they are discarded.

  • number (number): the number to shift
  • shift (number): number of bits to shift (0 to 32)
  • bits (number): number of bits to keep in the result (0 to 32)
  • returns result (number|null): the resulting number, with up to bits significant bits

The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The number of bits must be between 0 and 32. The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_SHIFT_RIGHT(0, 1, 8) // 0
BIT_SHIFT_RIGHT(33, 1, 16) // 16
BIT_SHIFT_RIGHT(65536, 13, 16) // 8
BIT_SHIFT_RIGHT(878836, 4, 32) // 54927

BIT_TEST()

BIT_TEST(number, index) → result

Tests if the at position index is set in number.

  • number (number): the number to test
  • index (number): index of the bit to test (0 to 31)
  • returns result (boolean|null): whether or not the bit was set

The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The index must be between 0 and 31. The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_TEST(0, 3) // false
BIT_TEST(255, 0) // true
BIT_TEST(7, 2) // true
BIT_TEST(255, 8) // false

BIT_TO_STRING()

BIT_TO_STRING(number) → bitstring

Converts a numeric input value into a bitstring, consisting of 0 and 1.

To convert a bitstring into a number, see BIT_FROM_STRING().

  • number (number): the number to stringify
  • returns bitstring (string|null): bitstring generated from the input value

The input value must be a number between 0 and 232 - 1 (including). The function will return null for any other inputs and produce a warning.

BIT_TO_STRING(7, 4) // "0111"
BIT_TO_STRING(255, 8) // "11111111"
BIT_TO_STRING(60, 8) // "00011110"
BIT_TO_STRING(1048576, 32) // "00000000000100000000000000000000"

BIT_XOR()

BIT_XOR(numbersArray) → result

Exclusive-or-combines the numeric values in numbersArray into a single numeric result value.

  • numbersArray (array): array with numeric input values
  • returns result (number|null): xor-combined result

The function expects an array with numeric values as its input. The values in the array must be numbers, which must not be negative. The maximum supported input number value is 232 - 1. Input number values outside the allowed range will make the function return null and produce a warning. Any null values in the input array are ignored.


BIT_XOR(value1, value2) → result

If two numbers are passed as individual function parameters to BIT_XOR(), it will return the bitwise exclusive or value of its two operands. Only numbers in the range 0 to 232 - 1 are allowed as input values.

  • value1 (number): first operand
  • value2 (number): second operand
  • returns result (number|null): xor-combined result
BIT_XOR([1, 4, 8, 16]) // 29
BIT_XOR([3, 7, 63]) // 59
BIT_XOR([255, 127, null, 63]) // 191
BIT_XOR(255, 257) // 510
BIT_XOR("foo") // null