String functions

For string processing, AQL offers the following functions:

CHAR_LENGTH()

CHAR_LENGTH(value) → length

Return the number of characters in value (not byte length).

Input Length
String Number of Unicode characters
Number Number of Unicode characters that represent the number
Array Number of Unicode characters from the resulting stringification
Object Number of Unicode characters from the resulting stringification
true 4
false 5
null 0

CONCAT()

CONCAT(value1, value2, ... valueN) → str

Concatenate the values passed as value1 to valueN.

  • values (any, repeatable): elements of arbitrary type (at least 1)
  • returns str (string): a concatenation of the elements. null values are ignored.
CONCAT("foo", "bar", "baz") // "foobarbaz"
CONCAT(1, 2, 3) // "123"
CONCAT("foo", [5, 6], {bar: "baz"}) // "foo[5,6]{\"bar\":\"baz\"}"

CONCAT(anyArray) → str

If a single array is passed to CONCAT(), its members are concatenated.

  • anyArray (array): array with elements of arbitrary type
  • returns str (string): a concatenation of the array elements. null values are ignored.
CONCAT( [ "foo", "bar", "baz" ] ) // "foobarbaz"
CONCAT( [1, 2, 3] ) // "123"

CONCAT_SEPARATOR()

CONCAT_SEPARATOR(separator, value1, value2, ... valueN) → joinedString

Concatenate the strings passed as arguments value1 to valueN using the separator string.

  • separator (string): an arbitrary separator string
  • values (string|array, repeatable): strings or arrays of strings as multiple arguments (at least 1)
  • returns joinedString (string): a concatenated string of the elements, using separator as separator string. null values are ignored. Array value arguments are expanded automatically, and their individual members will be concatenated. Nested arrays will be expanded too, but with their elements separated by commas if they have more than a single element.
CONCAT_SEPARATOR(", ", "foo", "bar", "baz")
// "foo, bar, baz"

CONCAT_SEPARATOR(", ", [ "foo", "bar", "baz" ])
// "foo, bar, baz"

CONCAT_SEPARATOR(", ", [ "foo", [ "b", "a", "r" ], "baz" ])
// [ "foo, b,a,r, baz" ]

CONCAT_SEPARATOR("-", [1, 2, 3, null], [4, null, 5])
// "1-2-3-4-5"

CONTAINS()

CONTAINS(text, search, returnIndex) → match

Check whether the string search is contained in the string text. The string matching performed by CONTAINS is case-sensitive.

  • text (string): the haystack
  • search (string): the needle
  • returnIndex (bool, optional): if set to true, the character position of the match is returned instead of a boolean. The default is false.
  • returns match (bool|number): by default, true is returned if search is contained in text, and false otherwise. With returnIndex set to true, the position of the first occurrence of search within text is returned (starting at offset 0), or -1 if search is not contained in text.
CONTAINS("foobarbaz", "bar") // true
CONTAINS("foobarbaz", "horse") // false
CONTAINS("foobarbaz", "ba", true) // 3
CONTAINS("foobarbaz", "horse", true) // -1

To determine if or at which position a value is included in an array, see the POSITION() array function.

COUNT()

This is an alias for LENGTH().

CRC32()

CRC32(text) → hash

Calculate the CRC32 checksum for text and return it in a hexadecimal string representation. The polynomial used is 0x1EDC6F41. The initial value used is 0xFFFFFFFF, and the final xor value is also 0xFFFFFFFF.

  • text (string): a string
  • returns hash (string): CRC32 checksum as hex string
CRC32("foobar") // "D5F5C7F"

ENCODE_URI_COMPONENT()

ENCODE_URI_COMPONENT(value) → encodedURIComponentString

Return the encoded uri component of value.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns encodedURIComponentString (string): an encoded uri component of value

FIND_FIRST()

FIND_FIRST(text, search, start, end) → position

Return the position of the first occurrence of the string search inside the string text. Positions start at 0.

  • text (string): the haystack
  • search (string): the needle
  • start (number, optional): limit the search to a subset of the text, beginning at start
  • end (number, optional): limit the search to a subset of the text, ending at end
  • returns position (number): the character position of the match. If search is not contained in text, -1 is returned. If search is empty, start is returned.
FIND_FIRST("foobarbaz", "ba") // 3
FIND_FIRST("foobarbaz", "ba", 4) // 6
FIND_FIRST("foobarbaz", "ba", 0, 3) // -1

FIND_LAST()

FIND_LAST(text, search, start, end) → position

Return the position of the last occurrence of the string search inside the string text. Positions start at 0.

  • text (string): the haystack
  • search (string): the needle
  • start (number, optional): limit the search to a subset of the text, beginning at start
  • end (number, optional): limit the search to a subset of the text, ending at end
  • returns position (number): the character position of the match. If search is not contained in text, -1 is returned. If search is empty, the string length is returned, or end + 1.
FIND_LAST("foobarbaz", "ba") // 6
FIND_LAST("foobarbaz", "ba", 7) // -1
FIND_LAST("foobarbaz", "ba", 0, 4) // 3

FNV64()

FNV64(text) → hash

Calculate the FNV-1A 64 bit hash for text and return it in a hexadecimal string representation.

  • text (string): a string
  • returns hash (string): FNV-1A hash as hex string
FNV64("foobar") // "85944171F73967E8"

JSON_PARSE()

JSON_PARSE(text) → value

Return an AQL value described by the JSON-encoded input string.

  • text (string): the string to parse as JSON
  • returns value (mixed): the value corresponding to the given JSON text. For input values that are no valid JSON strings, the function will return null.
JSON_PARSE("123") // 123
JSON_PARSE("[ true, false, 2 ]") // [ true, false, 2 ]
JSON_PARSE("\\\"abc\\\"") // "abc"
JSON_PARSE("{\\\"a\\\": 1}") // { a : 1 }
JSON_PARSE("abc") // null

JSON_STRINGIFY()

JSON_STRINGIFY(value) → text

Return a JSON string representation of the input value.

  • value (mixed): the value to convert to a JSON string
  • returns text (string): the JSON string representing value. For input values that cannot be converted to JSON, the function will return null.
JSON_STRINGIFY("1") // "1"
JSON_STRINGIFY("abc") // "\"abc\""
JSON_STRINGIFY("[1, 2, 3]") // "[1,2,3]"

LEFT()

LEFT(value, n) → substring

Return the n leftmost characters of the string value.

To return the rightmost characters, see RIGHT().
To take a part from an arbitrary position off the string, see SUBSTRING().

  • value (string): a string
  • n (number): how many characters to return
  • returns substring (string): at most n characters of value, starting on the left-hand side of the string
LEFT("foobar", 3) // "foo"
LEFT("foobar", 10) // "foobar"

LENGTH()

LENGTH(str) → length

Determine the character length of a string.

  • str (string): a string. If a number is passed, it will be casted to string first.
  • returns length (number): the character length of str (not byte length)
LENGTH("foobar") // 6
LENGTH("电脑坏了") // 4

LENGTH() can also determine the number of elements in an array, the number of attribute keys of an object / document and the amount of documents in a collection.

LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE()

LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE(value1, value2) → levenshteinDistance

Calculate the Levenshtein distance between two strings.

  • value1 (string): a string
  • value2 (string): a string
  • returns levenshteinDistance (number): calculated Levenshtein distance between the input strings value1 and value2
LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE("foobar", "bar") // 3
LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE(" ", "") // 1
LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog", "The quick black dog jumps over the brown fox") // 13
LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE("der mötör trötet", "der trötet") // 6

LIKE()

LIKE(text, search, caseInsensitive) → bool

Check whether the pattern search is contained in the string text, using wildcard matching.

  • text (string): the string to search in
  • search (string): a search pattern that can contain the wildcard characters % (meaning any sequence of characters, including none) and _ (any single character). Literal % and _ must be escaped with two backslashes (four in arangosh). search cannot be a variable or a document attribute. The actual value must be present at query parse time already.
  • caseInsensitive (bool, optional): if set to true, the matching will be case-insensitive. The default is false.
  • returns bool (bool): true if the pattern is contained in text, and false otherwise
LIKE("cart", "ca_t")   // true
LIKE("carrot", "ca_t") // false
LIKE("carrot", "ca%t") // true

LIKE("foo bar baz", "bar")   // false
LIKE("foo bar baz", "%bar%") // true
LIKE("bar", "%bar%")         // true

LIKE("FoO bAr BaZ", "fOo%bAz")       // false
LIKE("FoO bAr BaZ", "fOo%bAz", true) // true

LOWER()

LOWER(value) → lowerCaseString

Convert upper-case letters in value to their lower-case counterparts. All other characters are returned unchanged.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns lowerCaseString (string): value with upper-case characters converted to lower-case characters

LTRIM()

LTRIM(value, chars) → strippedString

Return the string value with whitespace stripped from the start only.

To strip from the end only, see RTRIM().
To strip both sides, see TRIM().

  • value (string): a string
  • chars (string, optional): override the characters that should be removed from the string. It defaults to \r\n \t (i.e. 0x0d, 0x0a, 0x20 and 0x09).
  • returns strippedString (string): value without chars at the left-hand side
LTRIM("foo bar") // "foo bar"
LTRIM("  foo bar  ") // "foo bar  "
LTRIM("--==[foo-bar]==--", "-=[]") // "foo-bar]==--"

MD5()

MD5(text) → hash

Calculate the MD5 checksum for text and return it in a hexadecimal string representation.

  • text (string): a string
  • returns hash (string): MD5 checksum as hex string
MD5("foobar") // "3858f62230ac3c915f300c664312c63f"

RANDOM_TOKEN()

RANDOM_TOKEN(length) → randomString

Generate a pseudo-random token string with the specified length. The algorithm for token generation should be treated as opaque.

  • length (number): desired string length for the token. It must be greater or equal to 0 and at most 65536. A lenght of 0 returns an empty string.
  • returns randomString (string): a generated token consisting of lowercase letters, uppercase letters and numbers
RANDOM_TOKEN(8) // "zGl09z42"
RANDOM_TOKEN(8) // "m9w50Ft9"

REGEX_MATCHES()

REGEX_MATCHES(text, regex, caseInsensitive) → stringArray

Return the matches in the given string text, using the regex.

  • text (string): the string to search in
  • regex (string): a regular expression to use for matching the text
  • returns stringArray (array): an array of strings containing the matches

The regular expression may consist of literal characters and the following characters and sequences:

  • . – the dot matches any single character except line terminators. To include line terminators, use [\s\S] instead to simulate . with DOTALL flag.
  • \d – matches a single digit, equivalent to [0-9]
  • \s – matches a single whitespace character
  • \S – matches a single non-whitespace character
  • \t – matches a tab character
  • \r – matches a carriage return
  • \n – matches a line-feed character
  • [xyz] – set of characters. Matches any of the enclosed characters (here: x, y or z)
  • [^xyz] – negated set of characters. Matches any other character than the enclosed ones (i.e. anything but x, y or z in this case)
  • [x-z] – range of characters. Matches any of the characters in the specified range, e.g. [0-9A-F] to match any character in 0123456789ABCDEF
  • [^x-z] – negated range of characters. Matches any other character than the ones specified in the range
  • (xyz) – defines and matches a pattern group
  • (x|y) – matches either x or y
  • ^ – matches the beginning of the string (e.g. ^xyz)
  • $ – matches the end of the string (e.g. xyz$)

Note that the characters ., *, ?, [, ], (, ), {, }, ^, and $ have a special meaning in regular expressions and may need to be escaped using a backslash, which requires escaping itself (\\). A literal backslash needs to be escaped using another escaped backslash, i.e. \\\\. In arangosh, the amount of backslashes needs to be doubled.

Characters and sequences may optionally be repeated using the following quantifiers:

  • x* – matches zero or more occurrences of x
  • x+ – matches one or more occurrences of x
  • x? – matches one or zero occurrences of x
  • x{y} – matches exactly y occurrences of x
  • x{y,z} – matches between y and z occurrences of x
  • x{y,} – matches at least y occurrences of x

Note that xyz+ matches xyzzz, but if you want to match xyzxyz instead, you need to define a pattern group by wrapping the sub-expression in parentheses and place the quantifier right behind it: (xyz)+.

If the regular expression in regex is invalid, a warning will be raised and the function will return null.

REGEX_MATCHES("My-us3r_n4m3", "^[a-z0-9_-]{3,16}$", true) // ["My-us3r_n4m3"]
REGEX_MATCHES("#4d82h4", "^#?([a-f0-9]{6}|[a-f0-9]{3})$", true) // null
REGEX_MATCHES("john@doe.com", "^([a-z0-9_\.-]+)@([\da-z-]+)\.([a-z\.]{2,6})$", false) // ["john@doe.com", "john", "doe", "com"]

REGEX_SPLIT()

REGEX_SPLIT(text, splitExpression, caseInsensitive, limit) → stringArray

Split the given string text into a list of strings, using the separator.

  • text (string): the string to split
  • splitExpression (string): a regular expression to use for splitting the text
  • limit (number, optional): limit the number of split values in the result. If no limit is given, the number of splits returned is not bounded.
  • returns stringArray (array): an array of strings

The regular expression may consist of literal characters and the following characters and sequences:

  • . – the dot matches any single character except line terminators. To include line terminators, use [\s\S] instead to simulate . with DOTALL flag.
  • \d – matches a single digit, equivalent to [0-9]
  • \s – matches a single whitespace character
  • \S – matches a single non-whitespace character
  • \t – matches a tab character
  • \r – matches a carriage return
  • \n – matches a line-feed character
  • [xyz] – set of characters. Matches any of the enclosed characters (here: x, y or z)
  • [^xyz] – negated set of characters. Matches any other character than the enclosed ones (i.e. anything but x, y or z in this case)
  • [x-z] – range of characters. Matches any of the characters in the specified range, e.g. [0-9A-F] to match any character in 0123456789ABCDEF
  • [^x-z] – negated range of characters. Matches any other character than the ones specified in the range
  • (xyz) – defines and matches a pattern group
  • (x|y) – matches either x or y
  • ^ – matches the beginning of the string (e.g. ^xyz)
  • $ – matches the end of the string (e.g. xyz$)

Note that the characters ., *, ?, [, ], (, ), {, }, ^, and $ have a special meaning in regular expressions and may need to be escaped using a backslash, which requires escaping itself (\\). A literal backslash needs to be escaped using another escaped backslash, i.e. \\\\. In arangosh, the amount of backslashes needs to be doubled.

Characters and sequences may optionally be repeated using the following quantifiers:

  • x* – matches zero or more occurrences of x
  • x+ – matches one or more occurrences of x
  • x? – matches one or zero occurrences of x
  • x{y} – matches exactly y occurrences of x
  • x{y,z} – matches between y and z occurrences of x
  • x{y,} – matches at least y occurrences of x

Note that xyz+ matches xyzzz, but if you want to match xyzxyz instead, you need to define a pattern group by wrapping the sub-expression in parentheses and place the quantifier right behind it: (xyz)+.

If the regular expression in splitExpression is invalid, a warning will be raised and the function will return null.

REGEX_SPLIT("This is a line.\n This is yet another line\r\n This again is a line.\r Mac line ", "\.?(\n|\r|\r\n)", true, 4) // ["This is a line", "\n", " This is yet another lin", "\r"]
REGEX_SPLIT("hypertext language, programming", "[\s, ]+") // ["hypertext", "language", "programming"]
REGEX_SPLIT("ca,bc,a,bca,bca,bc", "a,b", true, 5) // ["c", "c,", "c", "c", "c"]

REGEX_TEST()

REGEX_TEST(text, search, caseInsensitive) → bool

Check whether the pattern search is contained in the string text, using regular expression matching.

  • text (string): the string to search in
  • search (string): a regular expression search pattern
  • returns bool (bool): true if the pattern is contained in text, and false otherwise
  • caseInsensitive (bool, optional): if set to true, the matching will be case-insensitive. The default is false.

The regular expression may consist of literal characters and the following characters and sequences:

  • . – the dot matches any single character except line terminators. To include line terminators, use [\s\S] instead to simulate . with DOTALL flag.
  • \d – matches a single digit, equivalent to [0-9]
  • \s – matches a single whitespace character
  • \S – matches a single non-whitespace character
  • \t – matches a tab character
  • \r – matches a carriage return
  • \n – matches a line-feed character
  • [xyz] – set of characters. Matches any of the enclosed characters (here: x, y or z)
  • [^xyz] – negated set of characters. Matches any other character than the enclosed ones (i.e. anything but x, y or z in this case)
  • [x-z] – range of characters. Matches any of the characters in the specified range, e.g. [0-9A-F] to match any character in 0123456789ABCDEF
  • [^x-z] – negated range of characters. Matches any other character than the ones specified in the range
  • (xyz) – defines and matches a pattern group
  • (x|y) – matches either x or y
  • ^ – matches the beginning of the string (e.g. ^xyz)
  • $ – matches the end of the string (e.g. xyz$)

Note that the characters ., *, ?, [, ], (, ), {, }, ^, and $ have a special meaning in regular expressions and may need to be escaped using a backslash, which requires escaping itself (\\). A literal backslash needs to be escaped using another escaped backslash, i.e. \\\\. In arangosh, the amount of backslashes needs to be doubled.

Characters and sequences may optionally be repeated using the following quantifiers:

  • x* – matches zero or more occurrences of x
  • x+ – matches one or more occurrences of x
  • x? – matches one or zero occurrences of x
  • x{y} – matches exactly y occurrences of x
  • x{y,z} – matches between y and z occurrences of x
  • x{y,} – matches at least y occurrences of x

Note that xyz+ matches xyzzz, but if you want to match xyzxyz instead, you need to define a pattern group by wrapping the sub-expression in parentheses and place the quantifier right behind it: (xyz)+.

If the regular expression in search is invalid, a warning will be raised and the function will return null.

REGEX_TEST("the quick brown fox", "the.*fox") // true
REGEX_TEST("the quick brown fox", "^(a|the)\s+(quick|slow).*f.x$") // true
REGEX_TEST("the\nquick\nbrown\nfox", "^the(\n[a-w]+)+\nfox$") // true

REGEX_REPLACE()

REGEX_REPLACE(text, search, replacement, caseInsensitive) → string

Replace the pattern search with the string replacement in the string text, using regular expression matching.

  • text (string): the string to search in
  • search (string): a regular expression search pattern
  • replacement (string): the string to replace the search pattern with
  • returns string (string): the string text with the search regex pattern replaced with the replacement string wherever the pattern exists in text
  • caseInsensitive (bool, optional): if set to true, the matching will be case-insensitive. The default is false.

For more details about the rules for characters and sequences refer REGEX_TEST().

If the regular expression in search is invalid, a warning will be raised and the function will return null.

REGEX_REPLACE("the quick brown fox", "the.*fox", "jumped over") // jumped over
REGEX_REPLACE("the quick brown fox", "o", "i") // the quick briwn fix

REVERSE()

REVERSE(value) → reversedString

Return the reverse of the string value.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns reversedString (string): a new string with the characters in reverse order
REVERSE("foobar") // "raboof"
REVERSE("电脑坏了") // "了坏脑电"

RIGHT(value, length) → substring

Return the length rightmost characters of the string value.

To return the leftmost characters, see LEFT().
To take a part from an arbitrary position off the string, see SUBSTRING().

  • value (string): a string
  • length (number): how many characters to return
  • returns substring (string): at most length characters of value, starting on the right-hand side of the string
RIGHT("foobar", 3) // "bar"
RIGHT("foobar", 10) // "foobar"

RTRIM()

RTRIM(value, chars) → strippedString

Return the string value with whitespace stripped from the end only.

To strip from the start only, see LTRIM().
To strip both sides, see TRIM().

  • value (string): a string
  • chars (string, optional): override the characters that should be removed from the string. It defaults to \r\n \t (i.e. 0x0d, 0x0a, 0x20 and 0x09).
  • returns strippedString (string): value without chars at the right-hand side
RTRIM("foo bar") // "foo bar"
RTRIM("  foo bar  ") // "  foo bar"
RTRIM("--==[foo-bar]==--", "-=[]") // "--==[foo-bar"

SHA1()

SHA1(text) → hash

Calculate the SHA1 checksum for text and returns it in a hexadecimal string representation.

  • text (string): a string
  • returns hash (string): SHA1 checksum as hex string
SHA1("foobar") // "8843d7f92416211de9ebb963ff4ce28125932878"

SHA512()

SHA512(text) → hash

Calculate the SHA512 checksum for text and returns it in a hexadecimal string representation.

  • text (string): a string
  • returns hash (string): SHA512 checksum as hex string
SHA512("foobar") // "0a50261ebd1a390fed2bf326f2673c145582a6342d523204973d0219337f81616a8069b012587cf5635f6925f1b56c360230c19b273500ee013e030601bf2425"

SPLIT()

SPLIT(value, separator, limit) → strArray

Split the given string value into a list of strings, using the separator.

  • value (string): a string
  • separator (string): either a string or a list of strings. If separator is an empty string, value will be split into a list of characters. If no separator is specified, value will be returned as array.
  • limit (number, optional): limit the number of split values in the result. If no limit is given, the number of splits returned is not bounded.
  • returns strArray (array): an array of strings
SPLIT( "foo-bar-baz", "-" ) // [ "foo", "bar", "baz" ]
SPLIT( "foo-bar-baz", "-", 1 ) // [ "foo" ]
SPLIT( "foo, bar & baz", [ ", ", " & " ] ) // [ "foo", "bar", "baz" ]

SOUNDEX()

SOUNDEX(value) → soundexString

Return the soundex fingerprint of value.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns soundexString (string): a soundex fingerprint of value
SOUNDEX( "example" ) // "E251"
SOUNDEX( "ekzampul")  // "E251"
SOUNDEX( "soundex" ) // "S532"
SOUNDEX( "sounteks" ) // "S532"

SUBSTITUTE()

SUBSTITUTE(value, search, replace, limit) → substitutedString

Replace search values in the string value.

  • value (string): a string
  • search (string|array): if search is a string, all occurrences of search will be replaced in value. If search is an array of strings, each occurrence of a value contained in search will be replaced by the corresponding array element in replace. If replace has less list items than search, occurrences of unmapped search items will be replaced by an empty string.
  • replace (string|array, optional): a replacement string, or an array of strings to replace the corresponding elements of search with. Can have less elements than search or be left out to remove matches. If search is an array but replace is a string, then all matches will be replaced with replace.
  • limit (number, optional): cap the number of replacements to this value
  • returns substitutedString (string): a new string with matches replaced (or removed)
SUBSTITUTE( "the quick brown foxx", "quick", "lazy" )
// "the lazy brown foxx"

SUBSTITUTE( "the quick brown foxx", [ "quick", "foxx" ], [ "slow", "dog" ] )
// "the slow brown dog"

SUBSTITUTE( "the quick brown foxx", [ "the", "foxx" ], [ "that", "dog" ], 1 )
//  "that quick brown foxx"

SUBSTITUTE( "the quick brown foxx", [ "the", "quick", "foxx" ], [ "A", "VOID!" ] )
// "A VOID! brown "

SUBSTITUTE( "the quick brown foxx", [ "quick", "foxx" ], "xx" )
// "the xx brown xx"

SUBSTITUTE(value, mapping, limit) → substitutedString

Alternatively, search and replace can be specified in a combined value.

  • value (string): a string
  • mapping (object): a lookup map with search strings as keys and replacement strings as values. Empty strings and null as values remove matches. Please note that no sequence of search strings can be warrantied by this; Means, if you have overlapping search results, one time the first may win, another time the second. If you need to ensure the precedence of the sequence choose the array based invocation method.
  • limit (number, optional): cap the number of replacements to this value
  • returns substitutedString (string): a new string with matches replaced (or removed)
SUBSTITUTE("the quick brown foxx", {
  "quick": "small",
  "brown": "slow",
  "foxx": "ant"
})
// "the small slow ant"

SUBSTITUTE("the quick brown foxx", { 
  "quick": "",
  "brown": null,
  "foxx": "ant"
})
// "the   ant"

SUBSTITUTE("the quick brown foxx", {
  "quick": "small",
  "brown": "slow",
  "foxx": "ant"
}, 2)
// "the small slow foxx"

SUBSTRING()

SUBSTRING(value, offset, length) → substring

Return a substring of value.

To return the rightmost characters, see RIGHT().
To return the leftmost characters, see LEFT().

  • value (string): a string
  • offset (number): start at offset, offsets start at position 0
  • length (number, optional): at most length characters, omit to get the substring from offset to the end of the string
  • returns substring (string): a substring of value

TOKENS()

See ArangoSearch Functions.

TO_BASE64()

TO_BASE64(value) → toBase64String

Return the base64 representation of value.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns toBase64String (string): a base64 representation of value

TO_HEX()

TO_HEX(value) → toHexString

Return the hex representation of value.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns toHexString (string): a hex representation of value

TRIM()

TRIM(value, type) → strippedString

Return the string value with whitespace stripped from the start and/or end.

The optional type parameter specifies from which parts of the string the whitespace is stripped. LTRIM() and RTRIM() are preferred however.

  • value (string): a string
  • type (number, optional): strip whitespace from the
    • 0 – start and end of the string (default)
    • 1 – start of the string only
    • 2 – end of the string only

TRIM(value, chars) → strippedString

Return the string value with whitespace stripped from the start and end.

  • value (string): a string
  • chars (string, optional): override the characters that should be removed from the string. It defaults to \r\n \t (i.e. 0x0d, 0x0a, 0x20 and 0x09).
  • returns strippedString (string): value without chars on both sides
TRIM("foo bar") // "foo bar"
TRIM("  foo bar  ") // "foo bar"
TRIM("--==[foo-bar]==--", "-=[]") // "foo-bar"
TRIM("  foobar\t \r\n ") // "foobar"
TRIM(";foo;bar;baz, ", ",; ") // "foo;bar;baz"

UPPER()

UPPER(value) → upperCaseString

Convert lower-case letters in value to their upper-case counterparts. All other characters are returned unchanged.

  • value (string): a string
  • returns upperCaseString (string): value with lower-case characters converted to upper-case characters

UUID()

UUID() → UUIDString

Return a universally unique identifier value.

  • returns UUIDString (string): a universally unique identifier