ArangoDB v3.10 is under development and not released yet.

This documentation is not final and potentially incomplete.

FOR

The versatile FOR keyword can be used to iterate over a collection or View, all elements of an array or to traverse a graph.

Syntax

The general syntax for iterating over collections and arrays is:

FOR variableName IN expression

There is also a special variant for graph traversals:

FOR vertexVariableName [, edgeVariableName [, pathVariableName ] ] IN traversalExpression

For Views, there is a special (optional) SEARCH keyword:

FOR variableName IN viewName SEARCH searchExpression

Views cannot be used as edge collections in traversals:

FOR v IN 1..3 ANY startVertex viewName /* invalid! */

All variants can optionally end with an OPTIONS { … } clause.

Usage

Each array element returned by expression is visited exactly once. It is required that expression returns an array in all cases. The empty array is allowed, too. The current array element is made available for further processing in the variable specified by variableName.

FOR u IN users
  RETURN u

This will iterate over all elements from the array users (note: this array consists of all documents from the collection named “users” in this case) and make the current array element available in variable u. u is not modified in this example but simply pushed into the result using the RETURN keyword.

Note: When iterating over collection-based arrays as shown here, the order of documents is undefined unless an explicit sort order is defined using a SORT statement.

The variable introduced by FOR is available until the scope the FOR is placed in is closed.

Another example that uses a statically declared array of values to iterate over:

FOR year IN [ 2011, 2012, 2013 ]
  RETURN { "year" : year, "isLeapYear" : year % 4 == 0 && (year % 100 != 0 || year % 400 == 0) }

Nesting of multiple FOR statements is allowed, too. When FOR statements are nested, a cross product of the array elements returned by the individual FOR statements will be created.

FOR u IN users
  FOR l IN locations
    RETURN { "user" : u, "location" : l }

In this example, there are two array iterations: an outer iteration over the array users plus an inner iteration over the array locations. The inner array is traversed as many times as there are elements in the outer array. For each iteration, the current values of users and locations are made available for further processing in the variable u and l.

Options

For collections and Views, the FOR construct supports an optional OPTIONS clause to modify behavior. The general syntax is:

FOR variableName IN expression OPTIONS { option: value, ... }

indexHint

For collections, index hints can be given to the optimizer with the indexHint option. The value can be a single index name or a list of index names in order of preference:

FOR  IN  OPTIONS { indexHint: "byName" }
FOR  IN  OPTIONS { indexHint: ["byName", "byColor"] }

Whenever there is a chance to potentially use an index for this FOR loop, the optimizer will first check if the specified index can be used. In case of an array of indices, the optimizer will check the feasibility of each index in the specified order. It will use the first suitable index, regardless of whether it would normally use a different index.

If none of the specified indices is suitable, then it falls back to its normal logic to select another index or fails if forceForceHint is enabled.

forceIndexHint

Index hints are not enforced by default. If forceIndexHint is set to true, then an error is generated if indexHint does not contain a usable index, instead of using a fallback index or not using an index at all.

FOR  IN  OPTIONS { indexHint:  , forceIndexHint: true }

disableIndex

Introduced in: v3.9.1

In some rare cases it can be beneficial to not do an index lookup or scan, but to do a full collection scan. An index lookup can be more expensive than a full collection scan if the index lookup produces many (or even all documents) and the query cannot be satisfied from the index data alone.

Consider the following query and an index on the value attribute being present:

FOR doc IN collection 
  FILTER doc.value <= 99 
  RETURN doc.other

In this case, the optimizer will likely pick the index on value, because it will cover the query’s FILTER condition. To return the value for the other attribute, the query must additionally look up the documents for each index value that passes the FILTER condition. If the number of index entries is large (close or equal to the number of documents in the collection), then using an index can cause more work than just scanning over all documents in the collection.

The optimizer will likely prefer index scans over full collection scans, even if an index scan turns out to be slower in the end. You can force the optimizer to not use an index for any given FOR loop by using the disableIndex hint and setting it to true:

FOR doc IN collection OPTIONS { disableIndex: true }
  FILTER doc.value <= 99
  RETURN doc.other

Using disableIndex: false has no effect on geo indexes or fulltext indexes.

Note that setting disableIndex: true plus indexHint is ambiguous. In this case the optimizer will always prefer the disableIndex hint.

maxProjections

Introduced in: v3.9.1

By default, the query optimizer will consider up to 5 document attributes per FOR loop to be used as projections. If more than 5 attributes of a collection are accessed in a FOR loop, the optimizer will prefer to extract the full document and not use projections.

The threshold value of 5 attributes is arbitrary and can be adjusted by using the maxProjections hint. The default value for maxProjections is 5, which is compatible with the previously hard-coded default value.

For example, using a maxProjections hint of 7, the following query will extract 7 attributes as projections from the original document:

FOR doc IN collection OPTIONS { maxProjections: 7 } 
  RETURN [ doc.val1, doc.val2, doc.val3, doc.val4, doc.val5, doc.val6, doc.val7 ]

Normally it is not necessary to adjust the value of maxProjections, but there are a few corner cases where it can make sense:

  • It can be beneficial to increase maxProjections when extracting many small attributes from very large documents, and a full copy of the documents should be avoided.
  • It can be beneficial to decrease maxProjections to avoid using projections, if the cost of projections is higher than doing copies of the full documents. This can be the case for very small documents.

Starting with version 3.10, maxProjections can be used in Graph Traversals (Enterprise Edition only).

useCache

Introduced in: v3.10.0

You can disable in-memory caches that you may have enabled for persistent indexes on a case-by-case basis. This is useful for queries that access indexes with enabled in-memory caches, but for which it is known that using the cache will have a negative performance impact. In this case, you can set the useCache hint to false:

FOR doc IN collection OPTIONS { useCache: false }
  FILTER doc.value == @value
  ...

You can set the hint individually per FOR loop. If you do not set the useCache hint, it will implicitly default to true.

The hint does not have any effect on FOR loops that do not use indexes, or on FOR loops that access indexes that do not have in-memory caches enabled. It also does not affect queries for which an existing in-memory cache cannot be used (i.e. because the query’s filter condition does not contain equality lookups for all index attributes). It cannot be used for FOR operations that iterate over Views or perform graph traversals.

Also see Caching of index values.

lookahead

The multi-dimensional index type zkd supports an optional index hint for tweaking performance:

FOR  IN  OPTIONS { lookahead: 32 }

See Multi-dimensional indexes.