Working with Inverted Indexes

Create an inverted index

Creates an inverted index

POST /_api/index

Query Parameters

  • collection (string, required): The collection name.

Request Body

  • type (string, required): Must be equal to "inverted".

  • name (string, optional): An easy-to-remember name for the index to look it up or refer to it in index hints. Index names are subject to the same character restrictions as collection names. If omitted, a name is auto-generated so that it is unique with respect to the collection, e.g. idx_832910498.

  • fields (array, required): An array of attribute paths. You can use strings to index the fields with the default options, or objects to specify options for the fields (with the attribute path in the name property), or a mix of both.

    • name (string, required): An attribute path. The . character denotes sub-attributes. You can expand one array attribute with [*].

    • analyzer (string, optional): The name of an Analyzer to use for this field.

      Default: the value defined by the top-level analyzer option.

    • features (array of strings, optional): A list of Analyzer features to use for this field. You can set this option to overwrite what features are enabled for the analyzer. Possible features:
      • "frequency"
      • "norm"
      • "position"
      • "offset"

      Default: the features as defined by the Analyzer itself, or inherited from the top-level features option if the analyzer option adjacent to this option is not set.

    • includeAllFields (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

      If set to true, then all sub-attributes of this field are indexed, excluding any sub-attributes that are configured separately by other elements in the fields array (and their sub-attributes). The analyzer and features properties apply to the sub-attributes.

      If set to false, then sub-attributes are ignored.

      Default: the value defined by the top-level includeAllFields option.

    • searchField (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

      You can set the option to true to get the same behavior as with arangosearch Views regarding the indexing of array values for this field. If enabled, both, array and primitive values (strings, numbers, etc.) are accepted. Every element of an array is indexed according to the trackListPositions option.

      If set to false, it depends on the attribute path. If it explicitly expands an array ([*]), then the elements are indexed separately. Otherwise, the array is indexed as a whole, but only geopoint and aql Analyzers accept array inputs. You cannot use an array expansion if searchField is enabled.

      Default: the value defined by the top-level searchField option.

    • trackListPositions (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

      If set to true, then track the value position in arrays for array values. For example, when querying a document like { attr: [ "valueX", "valueY", "valueZ" ] }, you need to specify the array element, e.g. doc.attr[1] == "valueY".

      If set to false, all values in an array are treated as equal alternatives. You don’t specify an array element in queries, e.g. doc.attr == "valueY", and all elements are searched for a match.

      Default: the value defined by the top-level trackListPositions option.

    • nested (array, optional): Index the specified sub-objects that are stored in an array. Other than with the fields property, the values get indexed in a way that lets you query for co-occurring values. For example, you can search the sub-objects and all the conditions need to be met by a single sub-object instead of across all of them.

      This property is available in the Enterprise Edition only.

      • name (string, required): An attribute path. The . character denotes sub-attributes.

      • analyzer (string, optional): The name of an Analyzer to use for this field. Default: the value defined by the parent field, or the top-level analyzer option.

      • features (array of strings, optional): A list of Analyzer features to use for this field. You can set this option to overwrite what features are enabled for the analyzer. Possible features:
        • "frequency"
        • "norm"
        • "position"
        • "offset"

        Default: the features as defined by the Analyzer itself, or inherited from the the parent field’s or top-level features option if no analyzer option is set at a deeper level, closer to this option.

      • searchField (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

        You can set the option to true to get the same behavior as with arangosearch Views regarding the indexing of array values for this field. If enabled, both, array and primitive values (strings, numbers, etc.) are accepted. Every element of an array is indexed according to the trackListPositions option.

        If set to false, it depends on the attribute path. If it explicitly expands an array ([*]), then the elements are indexed separately. Otherwise, the array is indexed as a whole, but only geopoint and aql Analyzers accept array inputs. You cannot use an array expansion if searchField is enabled.

        Default: the value defined by the top-level searchField option.

      • nested (array of objects, optional): You can recursively index sub-objects. See the above description of the nested option.
  • searchField (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

    You can set the option to true to get the same behavior as with arangosearch Views regarding the indexing of array values as the default. If enabled, both, array and primitive values (strings, numbers, etc.) are accepted. Every element of an array is indexed according to the trackListPositions option.

    If set to false, it depends on the attribute path. If it explicitly expands an array ([*]), then the elements are indexed separately. Otherwise, the array is indexed as a whole, but only geopoint and aql Analyzers accept array inputs. You cannot use an array expansion if searchField is enabled.

    Default: false

  • storedValues (array, optional): The optional storedValues attribute can contain an array of paths to additional attributes to store in the index. These additional attributes cannot be used for index lookups or for sorting, but they can be used for projections. This allows an index to fully cover more queries and avoid extra document lookups.

    • fields (array of strings, required): A list of attribute paths. The . character denotes sub-attributes.

    • compression (string, optional): Defines how to compress the attribute values. Possible values:

      • "lz4" (default): use LZ4 fast compression.
      • "none": disable compression to trade space for speed.
  • primarySort (object, optional): You can define a primary sort order to enable an AQL optimization. If a query iterates over all documents of a collection, wants to sort them by attribute values, and the (left-most) fields to sort by, as well as their sorting direction, match with the primarySort definition, then the SORT operation is optimized away.

    • fields (array, required): An array of the fields to sort the index by and the direction to sort each field in.

      • field (string, required): An attribute path. The . character denotes sub-attributes.

      • direction (string, required): The sorting direction. Possible values:

        • "asc for ascending
        • "desc" for descending
    • compression (string, optional): Defines how to compress the primary sort data. Possible values:

      • "lz4" (default): use LZ4 fast compression.
      • "none": disable compression to trade space for speed.
  • analyzer (string, optional): The name of an Analyzer to use by default. This Analyzer is applied to the values of the indexed fields for which you don’t define Analyzers explicitly.

    Default: identity

  • features (array of strings, optional): A list of Analyzer features. You can set this option to overwrite what features are enabled for the default analyzer. Possible features:
    • "frequency"
    • "norm"
    • "position"
    • "offset"

    Default: the features as defined by the Analyzer itself.

  • includeAllFields (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

    If set to true, then all document attributes are indexed, excluding any sub-attributes that are configured in the fields array (and their sub-attributes). The analyzer and features properties apply to the sub-attributes.

    Default: false

    Warning: Using includeAllFields for a lot of attributes in combination with complex Analyzers may significantly slow down the indexing process.

  • trackListPositions (boolean, optional): This option only applies if you use the inverted index in a search-alias Views.

    If set to true, then track the value position in arrays for array values. For example, when querying a document like { attr: [ "valueX", "valueY", "valueZ" ] }, you need to specify the array element, e.g. doc.attr[1] == "valueY".

    If set to false, all values in an array are treated as equal alternatives. You don’t specify an array element in queries, e.g. doc.attr == "valueY", and all elements are searched for a match.

  • parallelism (integer, optional): The number of threads to use for indexing the fields. Default: 2

  • inBackground (boolean, optional): This attribute can be set to true to create the index in the background, not write-locking the underlying collection for as long as if the index is built in the foreground. The default value is false.

  • cleanupIntervalStep (integer, optional): Wait at least this many commits between removing unused files in the ArangoSearch data directory (default: 2, to disable use: 0). For the case where the consolidation policies merge segments often (i.e. a lot of commit+consolidate), a lower value will cause a lot of disk space to be wasted. For the case where the consolidation policies rarely merge segments (i.e. few inserts/deletes), a higher value will impact performance without any added benefits.

    Background: With every “commit” or “consolidate” operation a new state of the View internal data-structures is created on disk. Old states/snapshots are released once there are no longer any users remaining. However, the files for the released states/snapshots are left on disk, and only removed by “cleanup” operation.

  • commitIntervalMsec (integer, optional): Wait at least this many milliseconds between committing View data store changes and making documents visible to queries (default: 1000, to disable use: 0). For the case where there are a lot of inserts/updates, a lower value, until commit, will cause the index not to account for them and memory usage would continue to grow. For the case where there are a few inserts/updates, a higher value will impact performance and waste disk space for each commit call without any added benefits.

    Background: For data retrieval ArangoSearch Views follow the concept of “eventually-consistent”, i.e. eventually all the data in ArangoDB will be matched by corresponding query expressions. The concept of ArangoSearch View “commit” operation is introduced to control the upper-bound on the time until document addition/removals are actually reflected by corresponding query expressions. Once a “commit” operation is complete all documents added/removed prior to the start of the “commit” operation will be reflected by queries invoked in subsequent ArangoDB transactions, in-progress ArangoDB transactions will still continue to return a repeatable-read state.

  • consolidationIntervalMsec (integer, optional): Wait at least this many milliseconds between applying ‘consolidationPolicy’ to consolidate View data store and possibly release space on the filesystem (default: 1000, to disable use: 0). For the case where there are a lot of data modification operations, a higher value could potentially have the data store consume more space and file handles. For the case where there are a few data modification operations, a lower value will impact performance due to no segment candidates available for consolidation.

    Background: For data modification ArangoSearch Views follow the concept of a “versioned data store”. Thus old versions of data may be removed once there are no longer any users of the old data. The frequency of the cleanup and compaction operations are governed by ‘consolidationIntervalMsec’ and the candidates for compaction are selected via ‘consolidationPolicy’.

  • consolidationPolicy (object, optional): The consolidation policy to apply for selecting which segments should be merged (default: {}).

    Background: With each ArangoDB transaction that inserts documents one or more ArangoSearch internal segments gets created. Similarly for removed documents the segments that contain such documents will have these documents marked as ‘deleted’. Over time this approach causes a lot of small and sparse segments to be created. A “consolidation” operation selects one or more segments and copies all of their valid documents into a single new segment, thereby allowing the search algorithm to perform more optimally and for extra file handles to be released once old segments are no longer used.

    • type (string, optional): The segment candidates for the “consolidation” operation are selected based upon several possible configurable formulas as defined by their types. The supported types are:

      • "tier" (default): consolidate based on segment byte size and live document count as dictated by the customization attributes.
    • segmentsBytesFloor (integer, optional): Defines the value (in bytes) to treat all smaller segments as equal for consolidation selection. Default: 2097152

    • segmentsBytesMax (integer, optional): The maximum allowed size of all consolidated segments in bytes. Default: 5368709120

    • segmentsMax (integer, optional): The maximum number of segments that are evaluated as candidates for consolidation. Default: 10

    • segmentsMin (integer, optional): The minimum number of segments that are evaluated as candidates for consolidation. Default: 1

    • minScore (integer, optional): Filter out consolidation candidates with a score less than this. Default: 0

  • writebufferIdle (integer, optional): Maximum number of writers (segments) cached in the pool (default: 64, use 0 to disable)

  • writebufferActive (integer, optional): Maximum number of concurrent active writers (segments) that perform a transaction. Other writers (segments) wait till current active writers (segments) finish (default: 0, use 0 to disable)

  • writebufferSizeMax (integer, optional): Maximum memory byte size per writer (segment) before a writer (segment) flush is triggered. 0 value turns off this limit for any writer (buffer) and data will be flushed periodically based on the value defined for the flush thread (ArangoDB server startup option). 0 value should be used carefully due to high potential memory consumption (default: 33554432, use 0 to disable)

Creates an inverted index for the collection collection-name, if it does not already exist. The call expects an object containing the index details.

Responses

HTTP 200: If the index already exists, then a HTTP 200 is returned.

HTTP 201: If the index does not already exist and can be created, then a HTTP 201 is returned.

HTTP 404: If the collection-name is unknown, then a HTTP 404 is returned.

Examples

Creating an inverted index:

shell> curl -X POST --header 'accept: application/json' --data-binary @- --dump - http://localhost:8529/_api/index?collection=products <<EOF
{ 
  "type" : "inverted", 
  "fields" : [ 
    "a", 
    { 
      "name" : "b", 
      "analyzer" : "text_en" 
    } 
  ] 
}
EOF

HTTP/1.1 201 Created
content-type: application/json
cache-control: no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate, pre-check=0, post-check=0, max-age=0, s-maxage=0
connection: Keep-Alive
content-length: 754
content-security-policy: frame-ancestors 'self'; form-action 'self';
expires: 0
pragma: no-cache
server: ArangoDB
strict-transport-security: max-age=31536000 ; includeSubDomains
x-arango-queue-time-seconds: 0.000000
x-content-type-options: nosniff
Show response body